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The history of the automobile

The history of the automobile involves the series of events, innovations and scientific-technological knowledge that gave birth to the automobile. They are the events that allowed it to evolve and finally become what is now part of our daily lives.

Called cars, autos, or cars, land motor vehicles are one of the most successful human inventions when it comes to travel. Its popularity during its more than two centuries of history has been such that a total number of 1.2 billion cars are estimated to be on the road today.

The word automobile comes from Greek and Latin, and implies the union of autós ("by itself") and mobilis ("that moves"), respectively.

Automobile Background

The development of the automobile would not have been possible without the technological and industrial advances brought about by the Industrial Revolution. Among them, for example, the steam engine, whose greatest developer was the British James Watt, and which allowed the invention of trains and, at the same time, the first attempts at automobiles.

Other indispensable technologies for the appearance of the automobile had to do with electricity. This phenomenon was known since ancient times but generated and exploited in modern terms since the last quarter of the 19th century, thanks to the research of scientists such as Gramme, Tesla, Sprague, Graham Bell, among others.

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Finally, knowledge of fuels was necessary, especially the internal combustion engine. In the mid-nineteenth century, when oil exploitation began in the world and the energy potential of this fossil substance became known, it was fully developed.

Why was the automobile created?

The automobile responded to the desire to transport materials or passengers over long distances and, also, at higher speeds. However, it was not the first human invention to try to answer that wish.

Previously there were carts pulled by robust animals, which is known as "blood traction". This transport had the disadvantage of the physical limitations of the animal.

The mechanization brought about by the Industrial Revolution offered an answer: a machine to do the job. One that can be repaired when it breaks down, that can be pushed to the limit and reach enormous speeds, that does not tire and that can be mass-produced, ready for use. This was the car.

Origin of the automobile

The invention of the car comprises different stages that we will see separately, but in strict terms of what we understand today as a car (a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine and with electrical components) it is accepted that the first example in history was developed in Germany, by different engineers independently:

Karl Benz designed his first model, called the Benz Patent-Motorwagen in Mannheim in 1885. His wife traveled some 80 kilometers to the city of Profzheim in 1888, as a way to demonstrate her husband's invention, which had already been patented in 1886.

Gottlieb Daimler and Willhelm Maybach independently designed their own model car in 1889 in Stuttgart. However, the Benz machine is regarded as the formal starting point of the automobile.

Steam stage

The initial stage in automobile history began with a steam engine. Around 1770, the French inventor Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot created a vehicle that took advantage of steam engine technology, with a vertical two-cylinder engine and 50 liters of displacement.

With his second and improved prototype he managed to reach speeds of 4 kilometers per hour. Ironically, he had the first car accident in history with him, losing control of the device and crashing into a wall.

Cugnot built a third version in 1771, which is still preserved, and served as an inspiration to William Murdoch, who built a similar steam car in 1784, and to Richard Trevithick, who did the same in 1801. These first vehicles led to the invention of the engine brake. hand, gears, and steering wheel, but they had the downside of having to keep your boiler warm.

Petroleum Fuel Engine

The first tests with the combustion engine were held in the early nineteenth century, with relative success. Boats and motor models followed one another from 1807. In 1860 the Belgian Etienne Lenoir successfully drove a vehicle with an internal combustion engine, powered by coal gas.

Lenoir's car mixed air and fuel and used an electric ignition, in a two-stroke engine. That first model served Nikolaus Otto in 1876 to build and patent a four-stroke engine.

Based on this second model, Siegfried Marcus created the first "Marcus Car", with a gasoline-based internal combustion engine, equipped with a low-voltage ignition system that he patented in 1883.

The next step was taken by the German Karl Benz with his first patented cars in 1886, an event that is considered the formal beginning of the history of the modern automobile. From 1900 the construction of these cars were already a common fact in France and the United States. The foundations were laid for the start of the automotive industry.

Electric car

Between 1832 and 1839, Robert Anderson invented the first electric vehicle, which was powered by non-rechargeable electric cells. At the same time, similar devices were circulating, the result of American engineers and others presented at the International Electricity Exhibition in Paris.

It was valued as being quieter and less heavy than steam engines, but there was no way at the time to solve the dilemma of the gradual discharge of electrical cells. However, Camille Jenatzy's "car" of 1889 reached a speed of 105 kmph, a record for that time.

Start of the automotive industry

The first automobile construction companies emerged at the end of the 19th century: the French Panhard et Levassor of 1889 and Peugeot of 1891. Although France was the pioneer in the invention of the automobile, the United States gave the automobile industry its full potential, thanks to to the ideas of Henry Ford.

Ford created the "T" models, which were produced in 1908 in large numbers, thanks to the application of assembly lines, an innovative system that has since been installed in the heart of human industries, called "Fordism."

Henry Ford, Henry Royce and Ettore Bugatti are considered the innovators of the automotive industry, responsible for its growth, expansion and world fame, in what was called the "golden age" of motorsport.

At that time Ford also competed with Oldsmobile and Cadillac, which later merged into General Motors, founded by William C. Durant in 1908. The Dodge Brothers marked their presence from 1914, and anticipated the birth in 1925 of Chrysler.

Shortly after, in Germany in 1926, the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft of Stuttgart, maker of Mercedes, and Benz & Cie, in charge of Benz cars, merged. This is how the legendary Mercedes-Benz emerged.

Importance of competition

One of the aspects that most pushed the automotive industry forward was automobile competition, the sport linked to the automobile. The speed and safety contests started very early, in 1894.

In 1895 the first major automobile race took place, from Paris to Bordeaux and back, between June 11 and 13. The winner was Émile Levassor with a Panhard et Levassor with an average speed of 24.5 kilometers per hour over a distance of 1,175 km.

This type of contest gave enormous visibility to the automobile and the industry behind it, despite the fact that there were no shortage of accidents that exposed the danger that they also involved.

Future of the automobile

The future of the automobile is uncertain. There does not seem to be a new car model that drastically replaces existing ones, despite the dreams that we harvested during the 20th century about flying cars and other similar vehicles.

The industry crisis is energy and ecological: burning fossil fuel destroys ecosystems and contributes to climate change in the process. Furthermore, fossil fuels are a non-renewable energy source and will eventually have to end. The industry response has been timid, but it points to electric cars, such as those created by Tesla Motors Inc.
 

Automobile history timeline

  • 1885. Benz invents the first automobile with a combustion engine.
  • 1890. Peugeot type 2 prototype announced.
  • 1893. The Benz Victoria, the first racing car, is marketed.
  • 1898. The first Renault car is built.
  • 1900. The commercialization of French cars and American cars begins.
  • 1910. The Ford Motor Company's Highland Park factory in Detroit, USA, opens.
  • 1920. The first sedan car appears.
  • 1928. Plymouth debuts as mid-priced model car.
  • 1964. Ford conquers the market with its Mustang cars.
  • 1990. Japanese cars brands flood the western market.
  • 2000. Honda announces the Insight, a gasoline-electric hybrid in the US.

the five most important American cars in history

Sounds Bruce Springsteen on my computer. Racing in the Street sounds but the song that resonates this July 4th should be Born in the USA . Exactly a year ago I celebrated the 4th of July in New Jersey in excellent company, but this 4th of July I spend it in Spain, writing for you a short chronicle about the five most important American cars in history . America's love story with the automobile has spread to the whole world and these five cars marked a before and after.

Ford Model T (1908-1927): mass production

Most US contribution to the history of the automobile possibly was the Ford Model T . Henry Ford's vision allowed the middle class to access an affordable and efficient means of transportation , effectively replacing horses and wagons. The price of the Ford Model T rose from more than $ 800 in 1908 - prohibitive for the average worker - to $ 260 in the late 1920s. The famous five-dollar-a-day wage allowed many Ford workers to purchase a Model T with their savings.

From a strictly business point of view, mobile chain production revolutionized the industrial organization of the automobile. It enabled Ford to build more than 15 million Ford Model T's in less than 20 years . The production model was replicated by General Motors and other manufacturers, leading to the mass production that characterizes the industry today. This is the true merit of the Ford Model T. Also, not all of them were black , as the myth would have us believe.

Chevrolet Corvette (1953-present): sportiness according to Detroit

The Corvette was born in 1953 as an American approach to the typical British roadster . It was intended to be a simple niche car, which during its early years did not even have eight-cylinder engines. Light in construction - it had a body with fiberglass panels - and a very careful design, everything changed when someone came up with the great idea of ​​putting a V8 under its hood . After the overwhelming success of the first generation, the myth was born: the best American sports car.

Its evolution has been unstoppable, always with a focus on dynamics and high performance. Although its fourth generation is not remembered with special fondness, all Corvettes have been the quintessential American sports car . The best thing is that its philosophy has not changed for more than 50 years: a contained weight, a V8 engine in front-center position and a lot of desire to touch the noses to the best of Europe. More than 60 years proving that America knows how to make authentic sports cars .

Ford Mustang (1964-present): the muscle car

The Ford Mustang could not be missing from this list . Born as an affordable, dynamic-looking four-seater coupe, it soon became one of the mainstays of the muscle car era. With high-performance V8 engines and ridiculously priced fuel, many Ford Mustangs became addicted to speed racing, whether it was regulated or street racing. It was the first car for many baby-boomers, a generation of Americans who have perpetuated the muscle car legacy to this day .

With muscle cars, a fondness for large-scale mechanical modifications and performance improvements was also born. The hot-rod era was just a preview of the search for constant improvement on board these muscle cars, which has given us examples to remember such as the Shelby Mustang GT500, without going any further. The success of the Ford Mustang hastened the birth of a whole generation of rival muscle cars, such as the Dodge Challenger or the Chevrolet Camaro , whose rivalry with the Mustang still belongs to the present.

Chrysler Voyager (1984-present): the forerunner of the modern minivan

The idea for the Chrysler Voyager came from Lee Iacocca, a visionary Chrysler executive. When he worked at Ford, he proposed the idea of ​​a modern minivan to management. It was 1974 and the project was rejected. The project was accepted a few years later by Chrysler, giving rise in 1984 to the first modern minivan , with seven real seats. A tremendously practical type of vehicle that has led to a new generation of vehicles designed to make transporting people more comfortable and easy.

The Chrysler minivan has shared the limelight with the European Renault Espace , launched just a few months later. Produced by Matra, it has had comparable success. A small detail: Matra belonged to Chrysler until the early 80s ... and I don't believe in such coincidences. Be that as it may, they have been the forerunners of the modern SUV era and the crossover era . A curious detail: it is known as the Chrysler Voyager, but its launch name was Dodge Caravan and Grand Caravan.

Tesla Model S (2013-present): electric cars are a real alternative

And we come to the present. The Tesla Model S is one of the most important cars in contemporary automotive history , and it is produced in the US by an American company, so it should be on this list. It is the modern electric car that has proven that an electric car does not have to be ugly, slow or cheap. In short, it has broken the association between electric cars and boredom. But its main success is to show that electric cars are already a real alternative to the traditional car .

In addition, it has shown that high electrical performance - the Tesla Model S P85D Performance has 700 hp and accelerates to 100 km / h in about two seconds - are compatible with a range close to 500 km. Autonomy very intelligently exploited thanks to a network of recharging stations called Supercharger, which recharge the batteries of the electric car in 20 minutes. This recharging network has hundreds of stations in the US and they are free for users of a Model S.

Super Cars

Mercedes-AMG ONE

From projecting to tangible reality… Mercedes has confirmed that its latest collaboration with AMG will become a reality and will begin selling the ONE in a few months. Hands down one of the most impressive supercars of 2019. Created to celebrate 50 years of the AMG preparer , the Mercedes-AMG ONE is a street car with a Formula 1 engine, literally ... It will have a 686 hp V6 hybrid gasoline engine, as well as four electric motors, which will provide it between 1,000 to 1,200 hp of power. It will do the 0-200 km / h in less than 6 seconds! and its top speed will be 350 km / h. Meanwhile, inside will be the most advanced technology from Mercedes Benz. The price of this wonder? It will easily exceed 2.7 million dollars for each of the 275 units that will be manufactured of the ONE… Which by the way are almost all sold.

McLaren Speedtail

McLaren is also not short on novelties in 2019 and presents its supercar for this year, the curious Speedtail. A vehicle that reminds us of the Jaguar XJ220, one of the supercars that marked the 1990s. Unveiled in October 2018, the McLaren Speedtail promises strong emotions. Its hybrid engine will reach more than 1,000 hp, although its specifications are unknown for now. Its weight will be about 1,400 kg. and will reach a whopping 403 km / h! … By the way, forget about bringing company: it's a car. Of course you will be lucky if you manage to acquire one of the only 106 that will be manufactured, at 2.1 million pounds each. And yes, you can drive it off the beaten track.

Bugatti Divo

The 5 million euro supercar . 1,500 hp. 40 units. And all sold ... This is the best summary that can be made of the new Bugatti Divo. 'New' in quotes, since it shares base and engine with the Chiron (no hybridization), but modified in several aspects. At Bugatti they have managed to lose 35 kilos in weight to the Chiron and have added downforce to build the Divo. Interestingly, its speed will be self-limited to 380 km / h., Less than its brother . Although the most incredible of all is that its 40 owners are also owners of a Bugatti Chiron ... Seeing is believing.

Apollo Intensa Emozione

After intense tests on the circuit, the Apollo IE (Intensa Emozione) is ready to be purchased ... Although you will have to run a lot to get one of the few 10 that will be manufactured. One of the few supercars of 2019 that has only a gasoline engine. It is a 12V of 6.3 liters, without hybrid technology of any kind, and that delivers 780 CV without turbo! Its 1,250 kg. weight (almost everything is made of carbon fiber) allow you to accelerate from 0-100 km / h in just 2.7 seconds, reaching 335 km / h top speed. And, in case you wonder, it is ready to circulate on the street ... Although its cost of 2.3 million euros may throw you back.

Hennessey Venom F5

Supercar maker Hennessey is doubling down on the Venom and updating its range with the F5, a car where everything is superlative. Only 24 units will be built at a price of $ 1.6 million each. Its carbon fiber body allows it to reach a weight of only 1,338 kilos, while its power reaches… 1,600 CV! In short, a weight / power ratio greater than 1: 1. But the thing does not stop there. The Hennessey Venom F5 promises to accelerate from 0 to 300 km / h in less than 10 seconds, and the 400 km / h would reach them in less than 30! (The current record is held by the Agera with 36.44 seconds). The bottom line would be its top speed : Hennesey promises that his Venom F5 will hit 300 miles per hour; at about  483 km / h. It would thus become the fastest car in history ... Now it even looks cheap.

Pininfarina Battista

Pininfarina has gone from being a designer to a manufacturer of its own supercars. Thus, his first project, the PF0, has become a reality with the definitive name of Pininfarina Battista, in honor of its founder, Battista Pininfarina. Its electric motor will be provided by the manufacturer Rimac  and will develop 1,926 HP of power! A figure that will allow you to reach 100 km / h in less than 2 seconds and  will easily exceed 400 km / h. Only 150 units of this model will be manufactured: 50 for the United States, 50 for Europe and another 50 for the Middle East / Asia ... At the moment we can count little more, since Pininfarina has only shown sketches and part of its behind in counted photos. At the Geneva Motor Show next March we will see its final appearance.

Lamborghini Huracán EVO

Although Lamborghini faces a transition 2019, waiting to develop its first hybrid (which will replace the Aventador), the Italian brand has a little great news for this year. The Lamborghini Huracán will receive an evolution (EVO) this 2019 and the original 610 hp will become 640 hp in the new model. An update that will also affect - although to a lesser extent - the body, with minor changes to the air intakes and the front bumper. The Huracán EVO will accelerate from 0 to 100 km / h in just 2.9 seconds and its top speed will reach 325 km / h. Soon, in addition, its convertible version will arrive, the Spyder .

Brabham BT62

Introduced at the end of 2018, the new Brabham BT62 is a tribute to the 70th anniversary of Jack Brabham's racing debut. Thus, only 70 Brabham BT62s will be manufactured. One of the most impressive supercars of 2019 for its overwhelming aesthetics. But it is no less what it hides under the hood: 710 hp of power for a 5.4-liter V8 engine ... Although we still do not know its acceleration and maximum speed figures promise to be brutal, since the set barely adds 1,200 kilos of weight carbon goes back to doing its job). By the way, although this supercar is designed for circuit and competition, in Brabham they have already confirmed that they will carry out conversions to make it a car suitable for the street for about 167,000 pounds ... Although, of course, for this you must first pay a million pounds to acquire it.

Koenigsegg Ragnarok

Although it is not its official name, Koenigsegg prepares to launch this 2019 the replacement for its impressive Koenigsegg Agera ... After breaking all unimaginable speed records - the Agera mark is set at 457.94 km / h -, we all hope that the Swedish manufacturer outdo yourself with the new Ragnarok  (so far his unofficial name). For now we know little about the project, except for a couple of drawings and the announcement of its next presentation at the next Geneva Motor Show 2019 (in March), in addition to the fact that there will only be 125 models for sale . If we take into account that the Agera had a power / weight ratio of almost 1: 1 (1360 hp and 1394 kg.), The RagnarokIt is rumored that it should exceed those figures and thus become one of the  fastest cars in  history. We will be very attentive.

Rolls-Royce Cullinan

The most luxurious of all the supercars of 2019 is, hands down, the Cullinan. Named after the world's largest diamond, the Rolls-Royce Cullinan is the British luxury brand's first SUV. Its platform, made of aluminum, is about 20 centimeters longer than the Bentley Bentayga , which makes it a giant 5,341 mm long; in addition to 2,164 mm wide and 1,835 mm high. It will have all-wheel drive, thus enhancing its SUV side . Of course, a beast of this size has a cost: its weight exceeds 2 and a half tons ... Although Rolls-Royce has already thought about it: the Cullinan is equipped with a powerful 6.75-liter V12 Twin-Turbo engine with 571 hp. Its declared maximum speed is 250 km / h ... And of course inside will be all the luxuries that correspond to a Rolls-Royce .

Tips for Buying a Used Car

What do I need to know to buy a used car?

This is always a minefield and nothing is guaranteed to be successful, but there are a few things to keep in mind before deciding to invest your hard-earned money into a used car purchase.

It is evident that in different countries there are different rules on how to import, export, or sell, but we assure you that many of these procedures apply wherever they are.

Tips before buying pre-owned cars

The depreciation of used cars is much less than that of new cars and therefore they are a more profitable purchase.

Study your finances and verify that everything is in place before choosing your car, this saves time and allows you to know exactly which vehicles you can aspire to.

Be aware of current vehicle "rates". Before buying, check the publications that appear in newsstands or newspapers to find the value of the most used vehicles.

Consider all the different outlets like-new car dealerships, private sales, etc., not just second-hand car dealerships.

How much mileage should a car have?

Cars less than three years old and that have traveled 10,000 - 15,000 km. per year are probably the best option. The average annual mileage of a car is around 10,000 km, so if a 3-year-old car has a mileage between 25,000 and 35,000 km it would be reasonable. If this level is exceeded, it indicates that the car could be used for business or had a rough handling.

Small or medium cars are easier to maintain and repair than convertibles or luxury cars.

How to buy a used car? What should I inspect?

Verify that the vehicle's license plate corresponds to the one stipulated in the registration documents and that it has not been altered or changed. Never buy a car without first taking a test drive.

First, make sure you have a safe place to drive it, then if possible take it to a unit where there is a whole mix of driving conditions, for example: on the motorway (i.e. fast), on local streets (slow), down winding roads and don't forget to check the reverse as well.

Bodywork

Always inspect the bodywork in good light. Look for corrosion or rust. Rust is probably the most damaging thing in all cars over five years of use.

Surface dents can be relatively harmless and easy to treat, but corrosion from inside the body panels is much more serious. Look for corrosion on the top and rear of the front wings, along with the side skirts, under the front and rear bumpers, and under the doors.

Sometimes a rust stain on the paint can indicate more serious corrosion underneath it. Press the panel gently with your thumb. If you hear a clicking sound this indicates advanced corrosion.

Walk around the car and look along the doors and wings at each of the four corners. Any repair in the crash will be noted if it has not been done well. You will see ripples or changes in the texture of the paint if there is a large amount of fill under the body. Take a small magnet, it will be attracted to the metal, not the plastic part. Also, observe variations in the color of the paint.

Water spots in the trunk, around the windows, on the carpets, and around the sunroof opening can indicate leaks.

Body structure

Look for rust holes in the inner wings, bulkhead, and any cross members, and visible members of the chassis and under the hood. If you see any, reject the car.

Underneath the car check the side skirts, chassis bases, cross members, and subframes. Hit the suspicious areas with a light hammer, or push with your hand to detect any damaged part of the metal. Be careful with freshly applied sealers - they could be hiding the weakened metal.

Look at the brake lines, if you notice a scab-like texture or are pitted by rust, they could be dangerous.

Check the suspension and steering points for serious corrosion, especially under the hood.

Shock or collision damage

A car that has suffered crashes or collisions can be dangerous, especially if its suspension and / or steering have been damaged.

Examine under hood for damage, creases, or substitute inner wings. It also inspects the engine compartment, front panels, and front chassis bases for repairs or creases.

When you test drive the car, you must pay attention to the direction that it is consistent, with no tendency to pull to the left or right.

Look under the carpet between the front and rear doors for signs of welding or repair in case two different halves of the car have been welded together, which is extremely dangerous.

How much mileage should a used car have?

Check the mileage counter, if the numbers are offline the history may have been tampered with.

Look closely to verify that the mileage corresponds to the general condition of the car. A worn foot brake and scuff marks on the gear lever indicate that a car could have traveled more than 60,000 kilometers. A worn or sagging driver's seat and wear on the carpet are other signs of high mileage.

Very low mileage can indicate that the car may have been left unused for long periods of time or used only for short trips. Both can cause engine problems. A car that has been used and maintained regularly is a better bet.

Motor

One of the most important used car buying tips is to take a look at the overall condition of the engine. A dirty engine and its surroundings suggest that the car has not been well cared for and that the service has been sloppy.

On the contrary, observing a shiny and clean engine can be a sign that it has been steam cleaned to disguise problems such as oil leaks, etc.

Before starting the engine remove the oil dipstick and check the oil color. If it is very black, the car has not been recently or regularly sent for maintenance. Also check if there is a beige "mayonnaise" color on the rod, if you see this color it is a sign of possible wear of the joints.

Check the amount and color of the coolant. The color of a non-oxidized antifreeze should be red. An engine that has been operated without antifreeze may have problems.

Listen to the cold starter. The oil light should go out soon after starting the engine, if this does not happen, there may be engine wear. If you notice loud jolts or loud noises shortly after starting it could indicate wear on the crankshaft and connecting rod bearings.

Listen to the noises, if they are loud or seem to be knocking or the light on the top of the engine, they indicate wear on the cylinders. Start the engine and accelerate sharply. Check for black or blue smoke in the exhaust. Blue smoke comes from burning oil and is a sign of engine wear, while black smoke is combustible without burning and has many possible causes.

During the test drive, check for teeth-like sounds (i.e., metallic rattle that occurs when the throttle is open). If the car has misfires and the engine has electronic ignition or ignition control, only buy if the misfire is when it is in first gear.

Keep an eye on the temperature gauge or warning light for what may indicate overheating. Lastly, check for oil leaks.

Transmission

If the car has a manual gearbox, check the clutch for proper operation; all gears should go in easily.

If the gear shift stiffens as revs increase, the clutch may be worn. Check the clutch slip by driving the car up a hill.

Try to downshift each gear change from higher than normal speed to test the synchro. If you notice too much strain on the gearbox, a replacement gearbox or a replacement are the only solutions.

If the vehicle has an automatic transmission, check that the transmission dipstick has the correct fluid level, it is better to do it with a warm engine. Smelling the dipstick is also recommended, if it smells burning, get away from the car!

When you drive it, check that the transmission shifts down and that you have the right setup at the right time.

Suspension

Check the shocks by pressing hard on the body when cornering and letting it go. The car should bounce right past its position level, then it will return. More than this indicates that the shocks need to be replaced.

Look out for bumps from the suspension on rough roads that could indicate worn bushings or shocks.

Take into account the handling of the car, if it is lazy or "floating" you are facing worn shock absorbers.

Check for fluid leakage from the shock absorbers; a slight leak is acceptable, if it is stronger, it is not.

Address

If the steering is lazy and heavy, the tires may be worn or under pressure.

Move the steering wheel smoothly while looking at the front wheel, you shouldn't notice any delay between the movement of the steering wheel and the movement of the tire.

Also, check for wheel oscillation at high speeds. This is often attributable to the front wheels being out of balance. If you notice that the steering wheel is moving at low speed this indicates that the tires are deformed.

Brakes

The brake pedal should offer good resistance and not sag more than necessary when pressure is applied.

If a servo is equipped, check that it works by pressing the brake pedal several times, holding the pedal down, and starting the engine.

You should feel the pedal slide down while it is being operated. The force of the brakes should not change when the brakes are applied at a difficult speed. If it does, it is possible that there is a leak in the cylinders or calipers.

If the car vibrates when the brakes are applied this implies that the front brake discs are distorted. Inspect the discs for unpolished areas or corroded areas, if you find them, they may need renovation. Also, don't forget to check the brake hoses for cracks, scuffs, swelling, or leaks.

Tires

Check the tread and sidewalls on all four wheels (plus the spare wheel) there should be no more than 2mm of wear on the entire tire, and the sidewalls should not be cracked or damaged.

Uneven tire wear suggests steering, tracking, or suspension problems.

Tips and advice for buying a used car

If the vehicle passes your entire inspection and test drive, here are some more things to consider before bidding:

Ask to see the history of repairs and service, as well as the receipts that support it. Check that the mileage recorded in the KM history matches the service and repair receipts.

Check that the vehicle registration and chassis number match the data declared in the registration document.

If the name of the seller does not match that of the person who appears on the registration document, you should ask the seller for a written confirmation from the registration holder authorizing him to sell the vehicle on his behalf.

Ask the seller if an independent mechanic is allowed to inspect the car. If he authorizes (and you can afford the additional expense) ask the mechanic to carry out a cylinder compression test to assess the condition of the engine and also to estimate the cost of the necessary repairs. You can then ask for the cost of the repairs so that they are deducted from the sale price.

If you're buying a car, depending on its value, it may be worth investing in a warranty. Please read the fine print of the warranty carefully and carefully, as in some cases more is excluded than is covered.